Computer networking CBSE Class 9 and 10

Computer networking:

Computer networking is the practice of connecting multiple devices, such as computers, servers, routers, switches, and other hardware components, to enable the exchange of information and resources between them. It is the process of creating and managing a network of interconnected devices, using specialized hardware and software tools to facilitate communication and data transfer between them.

Computer networking can be classified into different types, including local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs), and personal area networks (PANs), among others. Each type of network has its unique characteristics, advantages, and limitations, and is designed to serve specific purposes and meet different needs.

Some of the benefits of computer networking include improved communication, resource sharing, data storage, and security. Networking allows people to share information, access shared resources, collaborate on projects, and work more efficiently. It also enables organizations to centralize their data storage and backup, and protect their data from loss or theft.

There are several types of networks, including:

  1. Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is a network that connects devices within a small geographical area, such as a single building or campus.
  2. Wide Area Network (WAN): A WAN is a network that spans over a large geographical area, such as a country or even the entire world.
  3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A MAN is a network that covers a larger geographic area than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, typically covering a single city.
  4. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): A WLAN is a wireless network that connects devices using radio waves instead of physical cables.
  5. Virtual Private Network (VPN): A VPN is a network that allows remote users to securely access a private network over the internet.
  6. Storage Area Network (SAN): A SAN is a specialized network that connects servers to storage devices, allowing for high-speed data transfer and storage management.
  7. Campus Area Network (CAN): A CAN is a network that connects multiple LANs within a single geographical area, such as a university campus.
  8. Personal Area Network (PAN): A PAN is a network that connects devices within a single person’s workspace, typically using wireless technologies such as Bluetooth.

wired/wireless communication

Wireless communication refers to the transfer of information or data between two or more devices without the use of physical cables or wires. Instead, wireless communication uses radio waves or infrared light to transmit data signals over the air.

Wireless communication has become increasingly popular and is used in a wide range of devices, including smartphones, laptops, tablets, and other mobile devices. It enables users to connect and communicate with each other without being physically tethered to a device or network.

Wireless communication technologies include Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, cellular networks, and satellite communication. These technologies have revolutionized the way we communicate and access information, enabling us to stay connected with each other and the world around us, no matter where we are.


Wi-Fi, short for “Wireless Fidelity,” is a wireless networking technology that allows devices to connect to the internet or to other devices without the need for cables or wires. It uses radio waves to transmit data between devices, allowing users to access the internet from their laptops, smartphones, tablets, and other devices, without the need for a physical connection.

Wi-Fi networks are typically created by a wireless router or access point, which broadcasts a signal that can be detected by Wi-Fi enabled devices within range. Once connected, devices can communicate with each other and access the internet or other network resources.

Wi-Fi has become a ubiquitous technology in today’s society, enabling people to stay connected and productive in a variety of settings, from homes and offices to coffee shops, airports, and public spaces.


Bluetooth is a wireless communication technology that allows devices to communicate with each other over short distances. Bluetooth technology uses radio waves to transmit data between devices that are equipped with Bluetooth technology.

Bluetooth technology was first developed in the mid-1990s and has since become a popular method for connecting devices such as smartphones, tablets, computers, headphones, speakers, and other electronic devices.

Bluetooth technology is designed to be a low-power, low-cost solution for wireless communication between devices. It operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range and has a range of up to 30 feet (10 meters).

Bluetooth technology can be used for a variety of applications, including file transfer, streaming audio, and wireless control of devices. It has become an important part of many people’s daily lives and has enabled the development of new technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), which allows everyday devices to communicate and interact with each other

cloud computers (Private/public)

Cloud computing refers to the delivery of computing services—including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence—over the Internet (the “cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale.

Cloud computing can take many forms, but typically it involves renting computing resources from a third-party provider who manages the infrastructure and delivers it over the internet. This can include infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS) offerings.

IaaS provides access to virtual machines, storage, and networking resources, allowing users to build their own applications on top of the cloud infrastructure. PaaS provides higher-level tools and services, such as databases and development environments, to help users build and deploy applications more quickly. SaaS provides complete applications that are ready to use, such as email, collaboration tools, and customer relationship management software.

Overall, cloud computing offers many benefits to organizations and individuals, including scalability, cost savings, and increased agility.